Multiple factors—both natural and anthropogenic in origin—influence the biodiversity that comprises communities at specific locations, which in turn influences the strength of ecosystem functions and services. We study how local and regional habitat and landscape variables, economic pressures, and species interactions influence the specific composition of species at a given location. In addition, we investigate how this biodiversity contributes to varying ecosystem functions. Currently, we are exploring these questions along an urban to rural gradient in Philadelphia and the surrounding areas, focusing on agricultural, residential, and natural habitat types. To address these questions, we use a combination of field surveys, modeling and analyzing big datasets.